Saturday, August 16, 2008

Input and output devices of a computer


The devices that help the user to communicate with the computer are input devices. Once the data is fed into the computer, it works on the data, processes it and provides the results to the user. The devices that help the user to get the output from the computer are output devices.

Input devices
Input devices are those devices that are used to feed data and programs into a computer.

  • Keyboard: the keyboard of a computer resembles a typewriter with a few additional keys to handle various functions. A computer keyboard has three categories of keys:
    Alphanumeric keys: Alphabets, numbers, characters.
    Special keys: enter, backspace, Del, esc, Ctrl, alt.
    Function keys: (f1 to f 12) for selected operations.
  • Mouse: the mouse is one of the most popular input devices. This device helps you to manipulate a pointer or an arrow on the screen. The pointer moves according to the movement of the mouse on a flat surface.
  • Light pen: helps in identifying bar codes.
  • Scanner: scans documents and photos and transmits them to the computer.
  • Microphone: helps to record sounds to the computer and extensively used to talk through the internet.
  • Web camera: Also called webcam is a small low resolution digital video camera. Web accessible cameras upload images to a web server.
  • Joystick: used mainly to play games.

Output devices
These are the devices that are useful in receiving information or processed data from the computer. Some of the commonly used output devices are

  • Visual display unit: the unit that resembles a TV screen and commonly referred to as ‘Monitor’. This unit informs us about the activities performed by the computer.
  • Printers: printers are the primary output device used to prepare permanent documents. The printers that are widely used are Dot Matrix, LaserJet and Inkjet.
  • Plotters: plotters are used for high quality diagrams. A pen is mounted on an arm, which moves along the paper with the help of motors. This is used in making high-resolution sketches and maps.
  • Speakers: helps in listening to music and soundtracks of applications.

Input/output devices
The information in the disks is read by a disk drive. It is this same drive, which helps in writing or recording information to the disks (hard disk, floppy disk, CD R/RW). Hence, the disk drive is called an input/output device.

Friday, August 8, 2008

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE OF A COMPUTER

HARDWARE:
The components of the computer, which we can see, feel and touch, are known as the hardware.
Hardware comprises all the peripherals, which are associated with the computer.

SOFTWARE:
Software is a collection of Programs and instructions, which handle the different components of your computer and help them to interact in a hassle-free manner. Without software, a computer is nothing but a box with components that does not serve any purpose.
Computer software can be broadly classified into two categories viz:
(a) system software (operating system)
(b) application software(utility software)

SYSTEM SOFTWARE :

System software is the collection of programs and instructions designed to control, co-ordinate and extend the processing capabilities of a computer system. These programs act as an interface between the user and the computer.

APPLICATION SOFTWARE:
Application software are programs designed to use computer for a specific task. These programs are written to meet the needs of the user as the demand arises. Application software cannot function without system software. They give the user the flexibility to use the computer for special applications by providing with tools, which are otherwise not available with the system software. Examples of application software include Microsoft office, office XP, Adobe package, flash etc.

DISK OPERATING SYSTEMS:
Disk operating system is the operating system for personal computers (PCs).DOS provides a set of commands that enable to access or manipulate information on disks as well as simply interact with the PC. DOS manages file operations (copying, printing, viewing etc) disk storage organization, screen displays and other routine tasks that help make a PC easier to use. Software itself is contained on a disk and generally is loaded from that disk each time the computer starts up or boots.

Thursday, August 7, 2008

Peripheral, Universal Serial Bus (USB) and Drivers

Peripheral

Hardware you add to your computer other than processors and memory is called a peripheral. Computers generally include a parallel port, one or two serial ports, two PS/2 ports, two universal serial bus(USB) ports, controllers for up to two floppy disk drives and four IDE devices(typically hard drives, CD-ROM drives, CD-R drives, or DVD drives), a modem and sound and video adapters on the motherboard. Windows can’t usually tell whether these items are built-in or on separate cards. It treats them all as separate peripherals.

Universal Serial Bus (USB)

USB is a new connector, intended to be a faster and simpler replacement for serial and parallel ports, as well as for low to moderate speed devices such as modems, printers, sound cards and back-up tapes.

Drivers

Windows comes with standard drivers for a wide range of monitors, printers, modems, and other devices. When you buy hardware, you usually receive a floppy disk or CD- ROM that contains the driver for the device which you need to install during the configuring process to get the device work with windows.